The archival appraisal subject matter category is about assessing material to determine whether it should be taken into the archives. It includes collecting policy, archival value, informational value, sampling, weeding and de-accessioning.
Archival arrangement and description incorporates the identification and organisation of archives and the creation of documentation about archives that supports their management and use. Arrangement includes the principles of arrangement systems and concepts such as items, series, fonds and record groups. It covers record hierarchies, relationships between creators/ creating organisation/ provenance and records and the principles of provenance, original order and respect des fonds. Description encompasses drafting description, selecting appropriate levels of description, identifying and describing record formats and indexing. It includes automating description including the management of IT systems supporting description and access as well as dealing with user-generated content (crowdsourcing). It also covers description standards and metadata schemas.
The management of audio-visual and photographic archives category contains physical preservation of and description and metadata for both AV and photographic archives, managing access and specialist matters for specific AV formats such as intellectual property in film and photography. It covers physical management of photography, film, tape and videotape, and other common formats and also includes managing oral history, content and agreements.
Awareness raising and advocacy for records and archives
This category combines raising awareness of the value of archives and advocating for their management and use.
Awareness raising addresses the role of records and archives in society, the value of managing documentary evidence effectively, and protecting records and archives to support accountability and foster and enhance individual and collective identity and memory. It includes discussion of the Universal Declaration on Archives, International Archives Day, the relationship between human rights and recordkeeping; and other central records and archives issues of importance to the wider public. Advocacy for records and archives includes identification of appropriate technology and strategies and the use of social media and other dissemination tools. It covers making the case for archives and records management to a range of stakeholders as well as publicity and media campaigning, internal advocacy in support of better recordkeeping practice for current and semi-current records and working with related sectors such as museums and libraries.
This category encompasses all aspects of preservation of records and archives in digital formats. It includes preservation considerations for their creation and capture as well as format selection and migration. It covers specifying and maintaining digital recordkeeping systems as well as the resources, technology and management needed to manage reliable digital repositories. It also encompasses the capture, manipulation and maintenance of metadata. Authenticity, integrity, digital signatures and security are also contained in this category.
The ethics category is about ethical behaviour with respect to archives and records by all concerned in their use and management. It encompasses codes of ethics, the role of professional bodies and the role of archivists and records managers relating to wider ethical frameworks such as human rights, inclusion and diversity.
This category covers awareness and management of legal issues that affect recordkeeping practice. It includes intellectual property, privacy, information security, data protection and access to records and archives. Also included is human rights and records and archives at risk during armed conflict. It encompasses specific record-related legislation, changes in legislation and responding to legislative change. Legal ownership and title in records as well as ensuring accountability and governance are also covered by this category.
Maintaining Professional Standards and Related Professions
This category is about professional practice, training, education and lifelong learning for practitioners and the relationship between recordkeeping and other functions with which it interacts. Maintaining professional standards covers professional bodies, qualifications and frameworks as well as individual management of training and development throughout a recordkeeping professional’s career. Related professions refers to understanding and working with conservators, librarians, IT specialists, curatorial professionals, teachers/ learning professionals, information governance professionals, fundraisers and marketers.
Outreach, access and learning services is about engaging users with archives. It covers equipping and managing space for researchers, the general public and other stakeholders and good customer service, reference services together with use and control of movement of archives, handling archival material, security management and provision for users with special needs. It includes providing online and digital access and collections information as well as stakeholder engagement and the use of social media. It encompasses user-generated content, engagement with schools and other formal and informal learning institutions for adults and children. Events, exhibitions and all initiatives aimed at facilitating and increasing the diversity and size of audiences engaging with and using archives is included in this category.
This subject matter category comprises all aspects of collections care. It includes handling, packaging and storage requirements as well as planning, constructing/fitting out, and managing archival buildings. Security, disaster planning, risk mitigation and response and recovery are also covered here, as is needs assessment for preservation. Whilst in practice, digital preservation may be included in an institution’s collections care remit the ICA Resource Centre includes it in the dedicated category for digital preservation.
Records management covers all aspects of managing records until they are destroyed – it does not cover management of archives within a dedicated archives organisation. It encompasses the management of current and non-current records and includes specifying IT systems. It covers the creation and capture of records and metadata, including format selection, managing authenticity and integrity and the use of digital signatures. Organising, maintaining and documenting current and non-current recordkeeping systems is also contained in this category, as is their migration. It includes appraising records for legal, regulatory and business value and setting retention periods. It also covers managing storage, surveying records, production and tracking of records, destruction of records or transfer of archival records to archives and documenting administrative history and administrative change. Information governance, security and vital records management are also found here. Resources supporting preservation for digital records (and archives) have been allocated to the digital preservation category of ICA’s online Resource Centre.